Policy on Faculty Qualifications and Engagement
The Lucas College and Graduate School of Business (LCoB) is fortunate to have a dynamic, vibrant faculty engaged in an amazing array of innovative, impactful activities that support the mission of the College (http://www.sjsu.edu/cobaccreditation/Mission/vision/index.html). The LCoB core values of excellence, ethics, entrepreneurship, and engagement are evident in the academic and professional activities of the faculty. The faculty focus on research and professional engagement that impact the theory and practice of business and education in Silicon Valley and beyond.
The applied nature of our business programs and the quality of our graduates and faculty resources are highly appreciated by firms in the Silicon Valley and global business community. Indeed, the dynamism and multiplicity of pursuits of our faculty contribute strongly to the intellectual vitality of the College and serve as a significant recruiting advantage. To further these valuable endeavors, the College has a strong tradition of supporting faculty development activities that encompass a wide range of scholarly and professional pursuits. Thus, the college recognizes that faculty will maintain their qualifications in a diversity of ways and seeks to develop a policy that embraces that richness.
The following pages outline 1) the 2013 AACSB faculty qualification standard, 2) LCoB policy guidelines for designating and maintaining faculty qualification status, 3) the point system and categories of intellectual and professional contributions, 4) reporting and exceptions, 5) failure to maintain faculty qualification status, and 6) the relationship between the LCoB policy of faculty qualification and university review policies and procedures.
Faculty Qualifications and Engagement
The 2013 AACSB accreditation standards require that faculty collectively and individually demonstrate significant academic and/or professional engagement that supports the mission of the LCoB. The four classifications of faculty qualifications and engagement and their definitions are given here (adapted from AACSB 2013 Business Standards, p. 39). Guidelines for maintaining faculty qualifications are provided below.
*Approved by faculty vote on April 15, 2014. As part of LCoB’s culture of continuous improvement, this policy shall be reviewed periodically. Any proposed changes to the policy will be put to faculty vote.
SA ≥ 40%
SA + PA + SP ≥ 60%
SA + PA + SP + IP ≥ 90%
Scholarly Academics (SA) sustain currency and relevance through scholarship and related activities. Normally,
SA status is granted to newly hired faculty members who earned their research doctorates
within the last five years prior to the review dates.
Practice Academics (PA) sustain currency and relevance through professional engagement and relevant activities. Normally, PA status applies to faculty members who augment their initial preparation as academic scholars with engagement activities that involve substantive linkages to practice or other forms of professional engagement.
Instructional Practitioners (IP) sustain currency and relevance through continued professional engagement related to their professional backgrounds and experience. Normally, IP status is granted to newly hired faculty members who join the faculty with significant and substantive professional experience, and with a master’s degree. Faculty with a terminal degree may be granted IP status if they hold a full-time professional position.
Scholarly Practitioners (SP) sustain currency and relevance through continued professional engagement and scholarship related to their professional background and experience. Normally, SP status applies to practitioner faculty members who augment their experience with engagement activities involving substantive scholarly activities in their fields of teaching.
It is important for faculty to have initial academic preparation and/or professional experience at the time of hire and to remain engaged in scholarship and/or practice throughout their employment with the LCoB. A point system for intellectual and professional contributions to maintain SA, PA, IP, and SP status is given on p. 5. To deliver quality business education, faculty must pursue continuous development in their specialty area and its application to the business world. A critical factor is the alignment of faculty initial academic preparation/professional experience and ongoing engagement activities with their primary teaching responsibilities and with the mission of LCoB. Academic and professional engagement activities must be substantive and sustained at levels that support currency and relevance for the LCoB’s mission, expected outcomes, and strategies. Engagement can result from the work of a single faculty member, collaborations between and among faculty, or collaborations between faculty and other scholars and/or practitioners.
Faculty are responsible for working with their Department Chair or School Director and the Associate Dean-Undergraduate (or designee) to ensure that they have a feasible plan for maintaining their SA, PA, SP, or IP status. (A faculty member who does not maintain status through the point system is classified as ‘Other’; see p. 8 for failure to maintain status and process for regaining status.) Faculty are also responsible for regularly reporting their intellectual contributions and other activities to indicate how they are maintaining their qualifications and engagement status. Department Chairs and School Directors work with the Dean and Associate Dean-Undergraduate to determine the balance of SA, PA, SP, and IP faculty needed to best ensure that the LCoB can accomplish its mission and maintain the standards required by the AACSB.
Guidelines on Scholarly Academics (SA) and Practice Academics (PA)
Criteria for designation to SA and PA status include the following:
Research doctoral degree. Initial academic preparation for SA and PA status is normally required in the form of a discipline-based research doctorate. Such a doctorate is intended to produce scholars capable of creating original scholarly contributions through advances in research or theory and who can contribute research knowledge to their areas of teaching. In cases where the research doctorate is in the business discipline but outside the teaching area, or where the research doctorate is outside the business discipline but related to the teaching area, evidence of supplemental preparation to support relevance in the teaching field may be required. The greater the disparity between the field of academic preparation and the area of teaching, the greater the need for supplemental preparation.
Specialized graduate degree. Individuals with specialized graduate degrees in law, taxation or accounting will be considered SA or PA for teaching in their respective fields subject to ongoing and substantive academic and/or professional engagement activities. A faculty member with a graduate degree in law would be expected to teach courses in business law, legal environment of business, and related subjects. Individuals with a graduate degree in taxation or an appropriate combination of graduate degrees in law and accounting will be considered SA or PA to teach taxation..
Other terminal degree/no degree. If individuals have doctoral degrees that are less foundational discipline-based research oriented, or if their highest degrees are not doctorates, then they must demonstrate high levels of sustained, substantive academic and/or professional engagement activities to support their currency and relevance in their fields of teaching. A current research record in the teaching field will be accepted as evidence of academic qualifications for SA and PA, regardless of credentials. Individuals whose highest degree is not a doctorate may be considered for SA or PA status if they have a specialized master's degree in a business-related field, completed coursework in a business doctoral program, or are currently a student in a business doctoral program.
Maintaining Scholarly Academic (SA) Status
To maintain SA status, faculty members are expected to develop a portfolio of intellectual contributions that demonstrate currency in their field and support the mission of the LCoB. The intellectual contributions must indicate a sufficient quality, rigor and value to meet AACSB and LCoB standards. (See detailed list of accepted intellectual contributions on pp. 6-7.) Intellectual contributions are original works intended to advance the theory, practice, and/or teaching of business and management. As such, they are based on generally accepted research principles, are validated by peers and disseminated to appropriate audiences. Validation of the quality of intellectual contributions includes the traditional academic or professional pre-publication peer review1, but may encompass other forms of validation, such as online post-publication peer reviews, ratings, and surveys of users (AACSB 4/08/13, p. 16).
Faculty whose terminal degrees were granted within the five-year time frame are considered SA by virtue of the currency of their degree. Yet, such faculty must still engage in research activities to produce the required portfolio of contributions for future periods. Other faculty with SA status are expected to produce intellectual contributions on a regular basis. As evidence of maintaining SA status, faculty must earn a minimum of 6 points over each five year accreditation period. Points are earned based on the nature of the intellectual contribution as described below for Categories A, B, and C. At least 4 points in each 5-year period must be earned from Category A.
Faculty who do not maintain the criteria for SA status may move to PA status or to ‘Other’ (see point system on p. 5 and failure to maintain status on p. 8). For faculty who do not meet the criteria for SA status when returning to academic appointments after administrative appointments that do not include research-designated release time, they will be granted provisional SA status for a period equal to their absence for up to four years. They are expected to show progress during the period and fully meet the criteria for SA status at the end of the period.
Maintaining Practice Academic (PA) Status
To maintain PA status, faculty are expected to be engaged in contributions to practice or other forms of professional engagement on a regular basis. These may include practice-oriented intellectual contributions, consulting activities, service on boards of directors, etc. (See detailed list of acceptable professional contributions on p. 7.) As evidence of maintaining PA status, faculty must earn a minimum of 4 points over each five year accreditation period. Points are earned based on the nature of the intellectual contribution as described below for Categories A, B, C, and D. At least 2 points in each 5-year period must be earned from Category A or B.
Guidelines on Instructional Practitioners (IP) and Scholarly Practitioners (SP)
The College seeks to hire faculty who have appropriate academic preparation for teaching as well as relevant practical experience that can provide valuable insights into the rapidly changing landscape of the Silicon Valley region. Faculty who meet the following general criteria may be designated as IP or SP at the time of hiring.
A master's degree in a field related to the area of teaching assignment.
Current professional experience relevant to the faculty member's teaching assignment, significant in duration and level of responsibility.
The less related the initial professional experience is to the field of teaching, or the longer the time since the relevant experience occurred, the greater the need for that faculty member to demonstrate sustained academic and/or professional engagement related to the teaching field.
Maintaining Instructional Practitioner (IP) Status
To maintain IP status, faculty are expected to be engaged in contributions to practice or other forms of professional engagement on a regular basis. These may include substantial consulting activities, participation in business-related professional events, service on boards of directors, etc. Faculty members should consult with their department chair or school director if uncertain about whether an activity qualifies as a contribution for maintaining IP status. As evidence of maintaining IP status, faculty must earn a minimum of 2 points over each five year accreditation period from the list of professional contributions in Category D.
Maintaining Scholarly Practitioner (SP) Status
To maintain SP status, faculty members are expected to be engaged in academic pursuits on a regular basis. These may include production of peer-reviewed journal articles, active editorships with academic journals or other business publications, participation in recognized academic societies, etc. As evidence of maintaining SP status, faculty must earn a minimum of 4 points over each five year accreditation period. Points are earned based on the nature of the intellectual contribution as described below for Categories A, B, C, and D. At least 2 points in each 5-year period must be earned from Category A, B, or C.
Point System for Intellectual and Professional Contributions
The categories of intellectual contributions (A, B, C) and professional contributions (D) are listed below. The associated point system by faculty qualification is summarized here.
Category A (2 points each)
Peer-reviewed* journal article in the faculty member's discipline, which must:
Contribute to understanding or advance knowledge in a particular field through original research and/or significant work consisting of the synthesis of existing knowledge;
Have required significant time and effort to produce;
Be published in a journal where there is a possibility of submitted work being rejected (the publisher does not accept all papers)
Be published in a journal that is listed in Cabell's Directories of Publishing Opportunities, Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory (if designated as peer-reviewed*) or has been approved as being equivalent to journals listed in the directories by the Exceptions Committee.
Category B (2 points)
Scholarly book that involves original scholarly research and is published by a university press, academic or equivalent publisher.
Trade book on a topic relevant to the faculty member's discipline with field-based research that is of sufficiently high quality to be accepted by publishers with national distribution in bookstores and to attract reviews in publications with broad national reach.
Textbook that synthesizes elements of a faculty member's discipline, is updated regularly, and is published by a higher education commercial publisher.
- Awarded competitive grant or fellowship from a US national funding agency** (e.g., Fulbright, NSF, NIH, NASA, NIST…), foundation, or non-US equivalent.
Category C (1 point each)
Service*** as an editor or associate editor for a professional or academic journal or book, or as a member of an editorial board of an academic or professional journal.
Service**** as an active reviewer for a professional or academic journal or conference.
Service*** as a program chair or track chair involved in planning activities for a conference in the faculty member’s discipline.
Chapter in a scholarly book or a monograph that involves scholarly research and that is published by a university press, academic or equivalent publisher.
An article, paper, or case published in the proceedings of a conference in the faculty member's discipline.
A case (accompanied by an instructor's manual) that is editorially reviewed but not peer-reviewed* (e.g., accepted for publication by the author of a textbook).
Technical report related to research projects in the faculty member's discipline that is published and distributed.
Article on business practice or other area relevant to the faculty member's discipline in newspapers with national or regional distribution or magazines/journals with a broad readership (or the online equivalent); includes an article that does not fall into Category A.
Article in the faculty member's areas of expertise published in a journal that is not peer reviewed*.
Invited or peer reviewed* address, presentation, lecture, or colloquium in a faculty member's area of expertise that includes written materials.
Publicly available consulting report or testimony to a branch or agency of the government in a faculty member's area of expertise.
Published review of a book in the faculty member's area of expertise.
Publicly available material describing the design and implementation of new curricula in the faculty member's area of expertise.
Publicly available web site or web log in a faculty member's area of expertise that is updated regularly and linked at other significant sites.
Instructional software or simulation in the faculty member's discipline that is widely used.
- Obtaining a new or completing the maintenance of appropriate academic/professional certifications (e.g., CPA, CMA, California Bar license, etc.)
- Awarded competitive research grant from a foundation, for-profit or non-profit organization including those internal to CSU and SJSU (e.g., Mineta Transportation Institute, RSCA, Lucas grant, etc.)
Category D (1 point each)
- Serving in an active role of significance or leadership position in a business, non-profit or community-based organization, eg., board of directors
- Consulting activities of significant level, substance and duration
- Active service on a professional committee
- Creating and/or delivering high caliber executive education programs or their equivalent
- Obtaining a new and appropriate professional/technical certification (i.e., CPA, CMA, California Bar license, Oracle, SAP certifications, etc.)
- Continuing education – only one of the two required contributions may be of this type:
- Maintenance of appropriate professional/technical certifications (i.e., CPA, CMA, California Bar license, Oracle, SAP certifications, etc.)
- Attending professional development workshops
- Faculty internships at a business, non-profit or community-based organization
- Significant participation in business professional associations
- Participation in professional events that focus on the practice of business and management
- Participation in other activities that place faculty in direct contact with business and other organizational leaders
Reporting and Exceptions
Intellectual Contributions: Faculty members shall report, at least annually, on their intellectual contributions. Such reporting shall include:
- Citation including date of publication******
- The nature of the work (learning and pedagogical (L), contributions to practice (P), or discipline-based (D))
- Whether or not it was peer-reviewed*
- The category (A, B or C)
- A copy of the work.
Professional Contributions: Faculty members shall report, at least annually, on their professional contributions. Such reporting shall include:
- A description of the activity from Category D and the date(s).
Should a faculty member believe that the nature of a contribution does not fall within the items listed to document their qualification status, the Associate Dean–Undergraduate shall call a meeting of the Exceptions Committee consisting of the Department Chairs, School Directors, and Associate Deans, as follows.
For intellectual contributions, if a faculty believes that the nature of the contribution does not fall within the items listed in Categories A, B, and C, or that a particular contribution warrants placement in a higher category, such contribution and the rationale for its category placement shall be submitted to the Associate Dean-Undergraduate. A majority vote of the Exceptions Committee shall be final as to the category for the particular contribution. A similar procedure is required should a faculty member believe that a journal not listed in Cabell's or in Ulrich’s-peer reviewed or in the approved journal list should be treated as equivalent. For such considerations, the Committee will base its judgment on a review of the quality of the editorial board, the review process, and the published articles.
For professional contributions, should a faculty member believe that an activity not listed in Category D should be considered equivalent to the listed items, a description of the activity and the rationale for its consideration shall be submitted to the Associate Dean-Undergraduate. The Exceptions Committee will review the case. A majority vote of this committee shall be final as to whether the activity is appropriate to include as a professional contribution.
Failure to Maintain Qualification Status
Faculty who do not meet the criteria for maintaining SA, PA, SP, or IP status will be deemed to be not qualified and will be classified as ‘Other.’ Faculty members who are not qualified are expected to develop implementation plans that will allow them to regain qualified status. The plan should be developed in consultation with the Department Chair or School Director, who, along with the Associate Dean-Undergraduate will review progress on a semi-annual basis.
Relationship of LCoB Policy to University Review Policies
All faculty members are subject to university review policies and procedures. For example, tenure-track faculty are subject to the university's retention, tenure and promotion (RTP) policy. These review procedures include regular peer evaluations and student evaluations (SOTEs). The LCoB faculty qualifications and engagement policy is intended to complement university policies and procedures, not to replace them. Faculty are required to follow both the university review policies and procedures and the LCoB policy on faculty qualifications and engagement.
*Peer review is defined as “a process of independent review prior to publication of
a faculty member’s work by an editorial board/committee widely acknowledged as possessing
expertise in the field.” The peer review should be independent; provide for critical
but constructive feedback; demonstrate a mastery and expertise of the subject matter;
and be undertaken through a transparent process notwithstanding that the individuals
involved may be anonymous. Such a review ensures that the work is subjected to the
expected “scrutiny by academic peers or practitioners prior to publication.” (AACSB,
Eligibility Procedures and Accreditation Standards for Business Accreditation, 1/31/08,
*** Documented by dates of service and counts as 1 point during any 5-year period in which such work is performed.
***** Documented by three or more reviews, including revisions, from a range of journals and conferences, and counts as 1 point during any 5-year period.
******A contribution’s publication date is the copyright date for books and for other items that are issued for a particular date, such as a journal article or testimony, the stated date on that contribution.