SJSU Editorial Style
Our guide borrows heavily from The Associated Press Stylebook, which is used for print and digital platforms such as SJSU Newsroom, Washington Square, college and department newsletters and other materials targeting a general audience.
Send us your questions and comments about SJSU Editorial Style and this guide.
Capitalization: Academic degrees, Building names, Class-level references, Colleges and departments, Directions and regions, Disciplines, majors and programs, Nationalities, peoples, races and tribes, Seasons and semesters, State and Federal, Titles, San Jose, the city
The proper spelling of San Jose State University includes the accent over the "e" in José, when printing the name in both title case and in all capitals. You can set Microsoft Word and other word-editing applications to have the accent automatically.
San Jose State University
SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY
Web and email text does not require the accent over "e."
First reference to the university should be its full name: San Jose State University. Accepted second references are San Jose State, SJSU and "university."
Do not capitalize "university" when used alone as a second reference.
It is preferable to avoid abbreviations of schools, programs and organizations, except in tables, headlines and other situations where space is limited. Your copy will read better if you avoid abbreviations. When you do need to abbreviate, here are some reminders:
All-capital abbreviations or acronyms
All-capital abbreviations or acronyms do not take periods, except when referring to nations, states, cities or people.
Examples: SJSU, NFL, CBS, NSF
Abbreviate grade point average in all capitals with no spaces: GPA.
Names of organizations
Names of organizations should be spelled out on first reference. In general, do not follow an organization's name with an abbreviation or acronym in parentheses or set off by dashes (except legal documents). If an abbreviation or acronym would not be clear on second reference, do not use it.
Example: The National Collegiate Athletic Association recently certified the San Jose State University athletics program. The SJSU program was certified on its first participation in the NCAA review process.
Capitalize a person's title.
Spell out one-digit addresses: One Washington Square.
Abbreviate and capitalize compass points: 1130 Dupont Circle, NW.
Capitalize and spell out First through Ninth when used as street names. Use numerals with two letters for 10th and above.
Spell out Avenue, Street, Lane, etc., unless space does not permit.
Use the two-letter U.S. postal abbreviations for states: CA, PA, MD
Mr. John Chambers
Chief Executive Officer
170 W. Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134
Hyphenate African-American. The term black is also acceptable. Follow an individual's preference.
Ages from one to nine should be spelled out. Ages 10 and above should be left in numerical form.
Examples: The student is 19 years old. The policy is four years old.
Ages used as nouns or adjectives before a noun require hyphens.
Examples: The racetrack features three-year-olds today. The 24-year-old student ran for office.
References to an age range for a decade require no apostrophes.
The instructor was in her 30s. Not 30's.
She grew up in the 1950s. Not 1950's.
Alumnus refers to one male graduate or former student, or to a graduate or former student of unspecified gender.
Alumna refers to one female graduate or former student.
Alumni refers to two or more graduates or former students, all or some of whom are male. Alumnae refers to two or more female graduates or former students.
In general, avoid the use of "alum" as the term refers to a chemical compound. As an alternative, "graduate" may be used.
(See also Time of day)
Use "a.m." and "p.m." in lowercase with periods.
The terms of American Indian or Native American are both in current use to refer to a member of any of the indigenous people of the Americas. Follow an individual's preference. Do not hyphenate the term.
Avoid the use of "&" unless it is part of a company or institution's legal name, such as Procter & Gamble. The ampersand may be used in charts and lists where space is limited.
Hyphenate the term.
Building names are abbreviated only in class schedules, on maps and in other formats where space is limited. To abbreviate, use the building's initials, capitalized without periods or spaces.
To describe campus locations, use the building name followed by the appropriate room number. There is no need to use "room" before the room number.
Example: Student Involvement is located in Clark 140.
Academic degrees are capitalized only in specific references, such as Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy, etc. They are not capitalized in general references, such as bachelors degree, master's, doctorate. The word degree is not capitalized.
Examples: His objective is a Bachelor of Arts in History. The university offers several master's degree programs. One of these is the Master of Public Administration.
Capitalize degrees when they are referred to by initials: BS, MA, PhD. When using the abbreviations with a name, follow the name with a comma and then the abbreviation.
Example: Frederick A. Chin, PhD
When using an academic degree in the title, do not use both Dr. and PhD. Likewise, using Dr. and PhD is not necessary when a person's academic or administrative title implies these credentials.
Dr. Jane Koch or Jane Koch, PhD
Jane Koch, professor of mathematics
Building names are capitalized.
Example: Yoshihiro Uchida Hall or Uchida Hall
Class-level references are not capitalized except when referring to the formal name of a group.
Examples: A group of seniors provided tutoring for freshman. The Senior Class donated a gift of $50,000 to the university.
Colleges and departments are capitalized only if the reference is specific.
Some colleges have many departments.
The Department of Chemistry is part of the College of Science.
The Charles W. Davidson College of Engineering has a great number of international students. Many alumni attended the banquet at the engineering college.
Directions are not capitalized if they refer to a compass direction. They should be capitalized, however, if they refer to a region, are part of a proper name or denote a widely known section of a city or state. When in doubt, use lowercase.
Examples: Professor Mendoza's move east took him as far as the Midwest, where his Northern California customs were the source of much amusement.
Disciplines, majors and programs such as art, accounting, geography and engineering are capitalized only when referring to specific a department for course. However, disciplines derived from proper nouns, such as French, German and Spanish, are always capitalized.
Examples: She is planning to major in geography. The Department of Geography offers many courses. One of these is Geography 101.
Nationalities, peoples, races and tribes are capitalized. However, do not capitalize black, white, etc. when referring to race.
Examples: American, Chicano, Vietnamese, Ohlone, Caucasian, African
Seasons and semesters are not capitalized.
Example: We are looking forward to summer vacation after the spring semester.
"State" when used as a generic adjective or as a noun is not capitalized. "Federal" is capitalized as part of the formal names of corporate or government bodies. Use lowercase when it is used as an adjective to distinguish something from state, county, city, town or private entities.
Inform the people of the state of California.
Professor John Jones received a federal grant.
The Federal Communications Commission has awarded several grants.
Titles are capitalized only when they precede a person's name.
President Mary Papazian
Mary Papazian, president of the university
Dean Shannon Miller
Shannon Miller, dean of the College of Humanities and the Arts
Assistant Professor Shaun Fletcher
Shaun Fletcher, assistant professor, journalism and mass communications
The proposal presented by the college deans and department chairs is subject to approval by the president.
Do not capitalize "city" when used in conjunction with San Jose.
Example: Mayor Reed represented the city of San Jose at the library's celebration.
This is the list of the official names of colleges with preferred second references, where applicable.
Charles W. Davidson College of Engineering; Davidson College of Engineering
Lucas College and Graduate School of Business
College of Health and Human Sciences
College of Humanities and the Arts
College of International and Extended Studies
College of Science
College of Social Sciences
Connie L. Lurie College of Education; Lurie College of Education
Use commas to separate items in a simple series but not before the conjunction.
Example: The items on the dean's agenda included sabbaticals, collective bargaining and parking.
However, use a comma before the conjunction if there is a possibility of confusion without it.
Example: Among those attending the conference were the deans of social sciences, applied sciences and the arts, and humanities and the arts.
When used with quotation marks, commas and periods are always enclosed within the quotation marks.
Example: "The parking lot is crowded," he said. "I should have taken a distance education course through Extended Studies."
In general, follow the spelling and capitalization used by the company: inCircle, eBay, iPod, MasterCard, Macintosh, Kmart. Use ampersands as the official company or product name dictates. Abbreviate Co. and Corp., and delete references to Inc., unless doing so makes the name confusing.
Examples: Procter & Gamble, Microsoft Corp., the San Jose Mercury News
To check the formal names of companies, consult the national stock exchanges: New York Stock Exchange, NASDAQ or the American Stock Exchange.
When two or more adjectives are used to express a single concept in modifying a noun, they become compound modifiers. Compound modifiers are linked with hyphens.
Part-time or full-time worker
Capitalize the word "Internet" as a proper name to distinguish it from other kinds of nets. Spellings of some computer- and Internet-related words are below:
When writing website addresses and URLs, in most cases there is no need to prefix the web address with http:// or www. However, always confirm that the URL launches without the prefixes.
Course work is two separate words.
Written as cum laude, all italics and lowercase. It is Latin for "with honors."
Also, magna cum laude (with high honors) and summa cum laude (with highest honors).
Dashes are longer than hyphens. Single hyphens should not be used in the place of dashes. No spaces are needed before and after dashes. When dashes cannot be produced, on the Internet for example, two hyphens may be substituted. If using two hyphens, insert a space before and after the pair.
Em-dashes can be used to denote a change in thought or to add emphasis to a pause; to set off a list of items in place of commas because the extra punctuation would be confusing; or to set off the attribution of a quote.
En-dashes are used to denote a range.
Hyphens are used to hyphenate.
For readability and clarity in text, express dates of events in the sequence of time, day, date and place.
Example: The colloquium will be held at 4 p.m. Wednesday, September 1, in Clark Hall 201.
Abbreviate all months except March, April, May, June and July when used with a specific date.
Example: My birthday is Jan. 15.
Spell out months when used alone or only with a year.
Example: January 1989 was the coldest month on record.
When using a month, day and year, set off the year with commas.
Example: June 6, 1944, was D-Day.
Emeritus is not a synonym for retired. The titles emeritus (male) or emerita (female) are bestowed on many, but not all, retiring faculty members. A group of men or both men and women is called emeriti and a group of women is called emeritae. Place the word emeritus after the formal title.
Example: Professor emeritus of biology
When referring to the faculty of the university, college or department as a unit, faculty is a singular noun and takes a singular verb.
Example: The faculty is represented by the Academic Senate.
To refer to faculty members as individuals, add the word "members" and use a plural verb.
Many faculty members are part of the organization.
Several members of the geology faculty are among the presenters.
She is a faculty member in the English department.
To avoid gender bias, the term first-year student is acceptable. As an adjective, use freshman, not freshmen, which is always a noun. Another acceptable term is frosh.
It is one word in all forms and uses. Do not hyphenate.
When noting the graduation year and major of a San Jose State graduate, follow the Spartan's name with the two-digit graduation year and major. For current students, using the expected graduation date is acceptable.
Wanjiru Kamau, '65 Social Sciences
David Chai, '95 Graphic, '00 MA Art
Kenneth Habecker, '63 BA, '71 MA Spanish
The terms Hispanic and Latino/Latina can be interchangeably used when referring to people with a cultural heritage related to Spain or Latin America. Usage varies depending on context and the audience being addressed.
Latino is the masculine word; Latina is the feminine. Latino can refer to a mixed group of all genders.
A comma is not required when Jr. or Sr. follow a name. Commas, even when not used with the noninverted form, are always used with inverted names, which should appear in the following order:
Surname, Given Name, III
Deer, Jim G., Sr.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Library
As a general rule, numbers one to nine should be spelled out; numbers 10 and above should be left in numerical form. Use numerical figures, however, when referring to sections of a book, grade point average and scores.
A GPA of 3
An ACT score of 9
Spell out the word percent in text. Do not use the symbol "%" except in tables and technical text.
Spell out ordinal numbers (first, second, third) first through ninth. For the 10th ordinal and above, use figures.
Examples: First, second, 10th, 23rd, 31st
When describing money, do not include the decimal places for whole dollars.
Example: Tickets cost $5 for general admission, $3 for students and $2.50 for children under 12.
When describing time, do not use minute placeholders for whole hours. To avoid confusion, always use noon, not 12 p.m.
When writing telephone numbers, use hyphens to separate area code and exchange. Always include the area code.
For newspapers, magazines, journals and other regularly occurring publications, use italics. Italics should also be used for names of books, movies, plays, operas and television programs. Quotation marks should be used for names of lectures, presentations, articles, songs and poems.
Capitalize only words that are part of the publication's formal name. Check the publication's masthead to confirm its formal name.
Although clever typographic elements may be part of the publication's nameplate, editorial content never uses graphic symbols or stylized font, including exclamation marks, quotation marks, plus signs, asterisks, bold type or italic type.
Periods and commas, when used with quotation marks, always go within the quotation marks.
Example: The project is "long overdue," said Angela.
Dashes, semicolons, question marks and exclamation points go within quotation marks only when they relate to the quoted matter.
Example: Ask him, "How do you plan to implement the proposal?"
When referring to a student who is a member of an athletic team, use student-athlete with a hyphen.
Do not capitalize university, except when used in a proper name.
Example: Classes begin at San Jose State University in August. The university will be closed for Veterans Day.
For decades, use an "s" without an apostrophe.
Example: 1960s and '60s. (Not 1960's and 60's.)
On first reference, use 1960s, not '60s.
For centuries, the preferred format is the 20th century, not the 1900s.