**(1) ELECT**. The proportion of voters favoring candidate A, *p* = 55 / 100 = .55 = 55%. A 95% CI for *P* = 44.8%, 64.9% by the Fleiss
quadratic method calculated by EpiTable. Since 50% falls within this interval, we cannot say with 95% confidence that victory is
imminent.

**(2) BREASTCA**. If the null hypothesis were true, the number of cases in the sample would follow a binomial distribution with *n* =
1000 and *P* = .02. The expected number of cases (µ) = *np* = (1000)(.02) = 20. The observed proportion, * p* = 32 / 1000 = .032. We test
*H*_{0}: *p* = .02 vs. *H*_{1}: *p* __not__ = .02. Using the EpiTable's binomial procedure, the two-sided *p*-value = .012. This provides evidence to reject
*H*_{0}.

**(3) PREGRATS**. *p*-value = Pr(*X* >= 12| *H*_{0 }true) = .0011. Conclude: the malformation rate is significantly greater than expected.

**(4) SMOKE.REC**. Observed recidivism risk, *p* = 201 / 234 = .859. A 95% confidence interval for *P* = .808, .901 (via Epi Info's FREQ
command. Data make it clear that te large percentage of subjects resume smoking within a year.

**(5) BINSIZE**. For *d* = .1, *n* = 96. For *d *= .05, *n *= 384.

**(6) EDENTITION**. *p *= 20 / 262 = .076; 95% CI for *P* = (.048, .117) (Fleiss quadratic method)