APA Style Guide
The APA style, as presented in this handout, is widely accepted in the Social Sciences. The American Psychological Association (APA) citation format requires parenthetical citations within the text rather than endnotes or footnotes. Complete information about each source cited in the text is supplied in a list called "References" found at the end of the research paper. For exact detailed information you will need to consult the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
|Journal Articles (printed)||Books and Reports|
|Online Articles||Online Documents|
|For space reasons the format of the citations listed below are not in the specified format for the APA style. APA style requires double space throughout the document (e.g., title page, text, references). Alphabetize the list by author's last name. If there is no author given, start with the first significant word in the title. In titles, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle, and proper names. In addition References should be in a hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented. For example:|
|Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations.|
|Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.|
Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper nouns.
Journal Articles (print):
Here are examples of APA style reference citations for
periodical articles published in journals, magazines, newspapers, etc. Six or More Authors
Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, vol, pp.
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924.
Two to Six Authors
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.
Include the issue number in parentheses without italics following the volume number only if each issue is paginated separately, i.e., the pagination begins fresh with each issue. If all issues within a single volume are paginated continuously, do not include the issue
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856.
Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120.
Review of a Book
Schatz, B. R. (2000). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information]. Science, 290, 1304.
Daily Newspaper Article, No Author
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, p. A12. If the article had more than one page but not continuous then the citation would be "pp. A12, A14."
Entire Issue or Special Section
Barlow, D. H. (Ed.). (1991). Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3).
Six or More Authors
|Books and Reports|
Ruiz, V. L. & Sánchez Korrol, V. (Eds.). (2006). Latinas in the United States: A historical encyclopedia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Corporate Author as publisher
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Guidelines and application form for directors, 1990 summer seminar for school teachers. (1988). Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Humanities.
Chapter in a Book
Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek, & D.C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Mead, J. V. (1992) Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teaches bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RTR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teaching Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 346082)
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.
Format: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, vol, pp. Retrieved month day, year, from source. NOTE: APA protocols for citing electronic information are evolving. For the latest information, consult the official APA Web site link given here. APA will update this page regularly as there are additions, changes, or clarifications to APA style. http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
Full-Text Article Retrieved from an Aggregated Database (NOTE: Full Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are usually
not given with aggregated databases since they often do not function in subsequent online sessions; instead, use database name.)
Senior, B. (1997). Team roles and team performance: Is there really a link? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 241-258. Retrieved June 6, 2001 from ABI/INFORM Global (Proquest) database.
Dykeman, B. F. (1994). The effects of motivational orientation, self-efficacy, and feedback condition on test anxiety. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 21(2), 114-120. Retrieved June 4, 2001 from EBSCOHost Academic Search Elite database.
Stevenson, W., Maton, K. I. and Teti, D. M. (1999, February). Social support, relationship quality, and well-being among pregnant adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 22(1), 109-121. Retrieved June 3, 2001 from IDEAL database.
Garza, A. (1999, March 17). Siesta put to rest: Mexican tradition under siege. Boston Globe, p. A2. Retrieved June 3, 2001 from Newsstand (Proquest) database.
NOTE: for newspapers, make certain that the month and day of the publication is included.
Article from Public Domain, E-journal and/or Nonaggregate Database NOTE: Full URLs are given with public domain e-journals, and/or non-aggregate databases where the URL will function in subsequent online sessions to retrieve the same article. There is no period at the end of a reference citation ending with a URL.
VandenBox, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123. Retrieved October 13, 2001, from http://jbr.org/articles.html
Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. Retrieved June 6, 2001, from http://www.apa.org/journals/jacobson.html
For additional Writing Citation guides online see: http://www.sjlibrary.org/services/literacy/info_comp/citing.htm
No Author Identified, No Date
GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/
Can't find the right rule? If you do not find a rule in this guide to fit the specific citation situation you are working on, you need to consult the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Copies are available in the Library on the 2nd floor Reference collection (BF 76.7 P83 2001). Reference citations rules are in Chapter Four, pages 215 through 281. Use pages 232 through 239 as an index to examples in this chapter.
Kathryn Blackmer Reyes, firstname.lastname@example.org, 408.808.2097 kbr/apa/08/07