Systems in English Grammar

An Introduction for Language Teachers

Detailed Table of Contents

UNIT I:  THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ENGLISH 

Chapter 1:  Words  
	A.  Morphemes
		1. Free Morphemes
		2. Bound Morphemes
	B.  Word Classes
		1.  Nouns
		2.  Verbs
		3.  Adjectives
		4.  Adverbs
		5.  Pronouns
		6.  Auxiliary Verbs
		7.  Prepositions
		8.  Determiners
		9.  Conjunctions
	C. Conclusion
	D. Summary

Chapter 2:  Groups of Words 
	A.  Phrases
		1. Noun Phrases (NP)
		2. Prepositional Phrases (PP)
		3. Verb Phrases (VP)
		4. Adjective Phrases (AdjP)
		5. Adverbial Phrases (AdvP)
	B.  Clauses
		1. Adverbial Clauses
		2. Adjective Clauses
		3. Noun Clauses
	C.  Sentence Roles
		1. The Subject Slot
		2. The Verb Slot
		3. The Object Slot
		4. The Predicate Noun and Predicate Adjective Slot
		5. The Adverbial Slot
	D. Conclusion

UNIT II:  THE VERB

Chapter 3.  The Auxiliary System
	A.  The Auxiliary Verb Be
		1. Agreement and Tense
	B. The Auxiliary Verb Have
	C. The Auxiliary Verb Do
	D. The Modal Auxiliary Verbs Will  and Can
	E. Using Auxiliary Verbs Without a Main Verb
	F. Problem Solving with the Auxiliary System
	G. Review

Chapter 4a.  The Verb Tense System
	A. Tense
		1. Time
		2. Aspect
		3. The Inflectional Morphemes Attached to Verbs  
	B. The Verb Tenses
		1. The Simple Tenses
			a. The Simple Present Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			b. The Simple Past Tense 
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			c. The Simple Future Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			d. Review of the Simple Tenses
		2. The Continuous Tenses
			a. The Present Continuous Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			b. The Past Continuous Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			c. The Future Continuous Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			d. Review of the Continuous Tenses
		3. The Perfect Tenses
			a. The Present Perfect Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			b. The Past Perfect Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			c. The Future Perfect Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			d. Review of the Perfect Tenses
		4. The Perfect Continuous Tenses
			a. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			b. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			c. The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
				1) Form
				2) Time Expressions
				3) Generalization
			d. Review of the Perfect Continuous Tenses
	E. Problem Solving with the Tense System
		1. Problem Solving with the Seven Most Commonly Used Tenses
		2. Problem Solving with the Twelve Tenses
	F. The English Tense System in Discourse
		1. Aspect and Discourse
		2. Specific Tenses and Discourse 
	
Chapter 4b. The Voice System
	A.  The Active Voice
	B.  The Passive Voice
		1. Steps for Changing an Active into a Passive Sentence
		2. The Twelve Tenses of Be
		3. Choosing the Correct Voice
		4. Transitivity and the Passive Voice
		5. Problem Solving with the Voice System
			a. Problem Solving with the Seven Most Commonly Used Tenses
			b. Problem Solving with the Twelve Tenses		
	C. The English Voice System in Discourse
		1. Passive Sentences with By -Phrases
		2. Special Cases of the Passive Voice
	
Chapter 5.  The Negation System
	A.  Auxiliary Negation
		1. Auxiliary Negation with an Overt Auxiliary Verb
		2. Auxiliary Negation with No Overt Auxiliary Verb
			a. Singular Subject with the Main Verb in the Simple Present Tense
			b. Plural Subject with the Main Verb in the Simple Present Tense
			c. Any Subject with the Main Verb in the Simple Past Tense
	B.  Adverbial Negation
	C.  Negation with No
		1. Noun Phrase Negation
		2. Negation of Comparative Adverbs
	D.  Morphological Negation
	E.  Multiple Negators
	F.  Problem Solving with the Negation System

Chapter 6.  The Modal System
	A.  The Meanings of the Modals
		1. Social Obligation vs. Logical Possibility
	B. Modal Equivalents
	C. Other Modals
		1. Hypothetical Situations
		2. Permission
		3. Polite Requests
		4. Preference
		5. Repeated Actions in the Past
		6. Threats and Emergency Response
	D. Negative Modals
		1. Negated Modals of Social Obligation
		2. Negated Modals of Logical Possibility
	E. Past Modals
		1. Past Modals of Social Obligation
		2. Past Modals of Logical Possibility
	F. Problem Solving with the Modal System
	G. Cumulative Review

Chapter 7.  The Question System
	A.  Yes/No Questions
		1. Yes/No Questions from Statements with an Overt Auxiliary
			a. Intonation Pattern
		2. Yes/No Questions from Statements with No Overt Auxiliary
		3. Problem Solving with Yes/No Questions
	B.  Information (WH-) Questions
		1. The WH-Question Words
			a. Intonation Pattern
		2. S-form WH-Questions
		3. P-form WH-Questions 
			a. P-form WH-Questions from Statements with an Overt Auxiliary
			b. P-form WH-Questions from Statements with No Overt Auxiliary
				1) Intonation Pattern
		4. Problem Solving with WH-Questions
	C.  Tag Questions
		1. Tag Questions from Statements with an Overt Auxiliary
			a. Intonation Pattern
		2. Tag Questions from Statements with No Overt Auxiliary
			a. Intonation Pattern
		3. Problem Solving with Tag Questions
	D.  Echo Questions
		1. Regular Echo Questions
			a. Intonation Pattern
		2. WH-Echo Questions
			a. Intonation Pattern
		3. Problem Solving with Echo Questions
	E. Review of the Four Question Forms
		
UNIT III:  THE NOUN

Chapter 8:  Subjects and Objects
	A. Noun Phrases
	B. Noun Clauses
		1. Embedded Statements 
			a. Embedded Statements as the Object of the Main Clause
			b. Embedded Statements as the Subject of the Main Clause
		2. Embedded Questions
			a. Embedded WH-Questions
				1) Intonation Pattern
				2) Types of Embedded WH-Questions
					a) Embedded WH-Questions as the Object of the Main Clause
						i) P-form Embedded WH-Questions as the Object  of the Main Clause: Overt Auxiliary 							
						ii) P-form Embedded WH-Questions as the Object of the Main Clause: No Overt Auxiliary
						iii) S-form Embedded WH-Questions as the Object of the Main Clause
					b) Embedded WH-Questions as the Subject of the Main Clause 
						i) P-form Embedded WH-Questions as the Subject of the Main  Clause: Overt Auxiliary
						ii) P-form Embedded WH-Questions as the Subject of the Main Clause: No Overt Auxiliary
						iii) S-form Embedded WH-Questions as the Subject of the Main Clause
				3) Other Features of Embedded Noun Clauses
					a) Sequence of Tenses
					b) The Use of Infinitive Verb Forms
			b. Embedded Yes/No Questions
				1) Intonation Pattern
				2) Embedded Yes/No Questions as the Object of the Main Clause: Overt Auxiliary
				3) Embedded Yes/No Questions as the Object of the Main Clause: No Overt Auxiliary
				4) Embedded Yes/No Questions as the Subject of the Main Clause
			c. Problem Solving with Embedded Questions 
	C.  Objects
  		1. The Direct Object
		2. The Object of a Preposition
 		3. The Indirect Object
			a. Indirect Objects with To
			b. Indirect Objects with To  and For
			c. Indirect Objects with For
 			d. Choosing the Internal versus the External Form of the Indirect Object
			e. Indirect Objects with Direct Object Pronouns
			f. Problem Solving with Indirect Objects

Chapter 9:  The Pronoun System
	A.  Pronouns that Show Person, Gender and Number
		1.  Subject Pronouns
		2.  Object Pronouns
		3.  Possessive Pronouns
		4.  Reflexive Pronouns
	B. Pronouns that Show Number
		1.  Demonstrative Pronouns
		2.  Universal, Indefinite, and Reciprocal  Pronouns
			a. Universal Pronouns
			b. Indefinite Pronouns
				1) Some  and Its Relatives
				2) Many  and Its Relatives
			c. Reciprocal Pronouns
	C. Pronouns that Show Neither Person, Gender, nor Number
		1. WH-Pronouns
			a. Interrogative Pronouns
			b. Relative Pronouns
	D. Review Exercises
	E. Problem Solving with the Pronoun System

Chapter 10:  The Determiner System
	A.  The Central Determiners
		1. The Article System
			a. Classification vs. Identification
				1) Classified Noun Phrases
					a) First Mention
					b) General Characteristics with Have and Be
					c) Generic Nouns
					d) After Existential There
				2) Identified Noun Phrases
					a) Subsequent Mention
					b) Ranking Adjectives
						i. Superlative Adjectives
						ii. Sequence Adjectives
						iii. Unique Adjectives
					c) Shared Knowledge
						i. Universal Shared Knowledge
						ii. Regional/Local Shared Knowledge
						iii. Immediate Shared Knowledge
					d) Generic The
			b. Problem Solving with the Article System
			c. Articles with Proper Nouns
		2. The Other Central Determiners
			a. The Possessive Determiners
			b. The Demonstrative Determiners
			c. The Assertive/Nonassertive Determiners
			d. The Negative Determiner
			e. The Universal Determiners
			f. The Dual Determiners
			g. The WH-Determiners
			h. Problem Solving with the Other Central Determiners
	B. The Noncentral Determiners  
		1. The Predeterminers
			a. The Quantifying Predeterminers
			b. The Fractional Predeterminers
			c. The Intensifying Predeterminers
		2. The Postdeterminers
			a. The Numerals
			b. Many  and Its Relatives
			c. The Postdeterminer Other
		3. Problem Solving with the Noncentral Determiners

Chapter 11:  The Adjective System
	A. Adjective Phrases
		1.  Attributive Adjectives
			a. Adjective Suffixes
				1) Changing Nouns into Adjectives
				2) Changing Verbs into Adjectives
					a) Suffixes
					b) Verb Forms as Adjectives
			b. Sequence of Adjectives
		2.  Predicate Adjectives
		3. Problem Solving with Adjectives
	B. The  Adjective Clause System
		1. Relative Pronouns
		2. The Construction of Adjective Clauses
			a. Forms of Adjective Clauses
				1. S-Form Adjective Clauses					
					a) S-Form Adjective Clauses with Whose
				2. P-Form Adjective Clauses
					a) P-Form Adjective Clauses with Whose 
					b) P-Form Adjective Clauses with Prepositions				
   b. Types of Adjective Clauses
				1. Defining  Adjective Clauses
				2. Nondefining Adjective Clauses
		3. The Reduction of Adjective Clauses
			a. P-Form Reduction
				1. Reduction of P-Form Defining Adjective Clauses
			b. S-Form Reduction
				1. Reduction of S-Form Defining Adjective Clauses
					a) Appositive Clauses
				2. Reduction of S-Form Nondefining Adjective Clauses
		4. Problem Solving with the Adjective Clause System

UNIT IV:  THE ADVERB

Chapter 12:  The Adverbial System
	A.  Adverbs
		1. Adverb Suffixes
		2. The Functions of Adverbs
			a. Manner Adverbs
			b. Place Adverbs
			c. Time Adverbs
		3. Adverbs That Modify Other Parts of Speech
			a. Adverbs that Modify Adjectives and Other Adverbs
			b. Adverbs that Modify Determiners
			c. Adverbs that Modify Prepositions and Noun Phrases
	B.  Prepositional Phrases
		1. The Functions of Prepositional Phrases
			a. Manner Prepositional Phrases
			b. Place Prepositional Phrases
			c. Time Prepositional Phrases
	C. Adverbial Clauses
		1. The Functions of Adverbial Clauses
			a. Manner Adverbial Clauses
			b. Place Adverbial Clauses
			c. Time Adverbial Clauses
	D. Prepositional Noun Phrases
		1. The Functions of Prepositional Noun Phrases
			a. Manner Prepositional Noun Phrases
			b. Place Prepositional Noun Phrases
			c. Time Prepositional Noun Phrases
	E. Review of the Adverbial System
	F. Problem Solving with the Adverbial System

Chapter 13:  The Preposition and Particle Systems
	A.  Prepositions
		1. At, On  and In
			a. The Preposition At
				1) Location That Implies a Function
				2) Point in Time, Place or Measurement
			b. The Preposition On
				1) Surface
				2) Line
			c. The Preposition In
				1) Containment
				2) Mode
		2. Prepositions of Time
			a. Range
			b. Starting Point
			c. Duration
				1) Duration as Units of Time
				2) Duration as a Single Event
			d. Endpoint
		3. Prepositions of Place
			a. Relative Position
				1) Horizontal Relation
					a) Position
					b) Proximity
				2) Vertical Relation
					a) Contiguity
					b) Noncontiguity
			b. Passage or DIrection
				1) Movement in Two Dimensions
					a) Vertical
					b) Horizontal
					c) Planar
				2) Movement in Three Dimensions
					a) Open
					b) Closed
		4. Other Functions of Prepositions
			a. Accompaniment
			b. Destination
			c. Means
				1) Manner
				2) Instrument
					a) The Preposition By
					b) The Prepositions With and Without
				3) Agent
			d. Possession and Relation
		5. Problem Solving with the Preposition System
	B. Particles
		1. Particles and Phrasal Verbs

			a. Separable and Nonseparable Phrasal Verbs
				1) Separable Phrasal Verbs
				2) Nonseparable Phrasal Verbs
		2. Particles and Prepositional Verbs
		3. Particles and Phrasal-Prepositional Verbs
		4. Problem Solving with the Particle System			

UNIT V:  SENTENCE COMBINING

Chapter 14: The Coordination and Subordination System
	A. Logical Coordinators and Subordinators
		1.  The AND Relationship
			a. Addition
				1) More Information
					a) A Different Idea
					b) A Similar Idea
				2) Surprising or Unexpected Information
					a) Formal
					b) Informal
				3) General or Specific Information About the Previous Clause
					a) General
					b) Specific
			b. Explanation
			c. Condition
				1) Positive
				2) Negative
			d. Exemplification
			e. Choice
			f. Summation
		2. The BUT Relationship
			a. Contrast
				1) Specified Contrast
				2) Generalized Contrast
			b. Rebuttal
		3. The SO Relationship
			a. Cause
			b. Effect
			c. Purpose
	B. Chronological Coordinators and Subordinators
		1. Sequence
		2. Simultaneity
	C. Problem Solving with the Coordination and Subordination Systems
	D. Coordination and Subordination at the Discourse Level
	
Chapter 15:  The Complement System
	A.  Infinitive Structures
		1. Infinitive Structures with To
			a. Infinitive Structures as Object Complements
				1) Same Subject
				2) Different Subject
			b. Infinitive Structures as Subject Complements
				1) Generalized Subject
					a) It -Focus
				2) Particular Subject
			c. Infinitive Structures as Predicate Noun Phrase Complements
			d. Infinitive Structures as Predicate Adjective Complements
				1) Same Subject
				2) Different Subject
		2. Infinitive Structures Without To
			a. Infinitive Structures with the Causative Verbs Let, Make, and Have 
			b. Infinitive Structures with the Perception Verbs
	B. VERBing Structures
		1. Gerund Structures
			a. Gerund Structures as Object Complements
				1) Same Subject
				2) Different Subject
			b. Gerund Structures as Subject Complements
				1) Generalized Subject
				2) Particular Subject
			c. Gerund Structures as Predicate Noun Phrase Complements 
			d. Gerund Structures with Allied Prepositions and Particles
				1) Phrasal Verbs
					a) Same Subject
					b) Different Subject
				2) Phrasal Verbs with Allied Prepositions
				3) Predicate Adjectives with Allied Prepositions
					a) Same Subject
					b) Different Subject
		2. ING-Participle Structures
			a. ING-Participle Structures as Object Complements with Perception Verbs
			b. ING-Participle Structures as Adverbial Complements
				1) Same Subject
				2) Different Subject
					a) Dangling Modifiers
	C. Sequential Complements
		1. Sequential Infinitive Structures
		2.  Sequential VERBing Structures
	D. The Interchangeability of Complement Structures
		1. Simultaneous Complements 
			a. Same-Subject Complements
				1) Complement in the Subject Slot
				2) Complement in the Object Slot 
			b. Different-Subject Complements
				1) Complement in the Subject Slot
				2) Complement in the Object Slot 
		2. Sequential Complements
			a. Same-Subject Complements
				1) Complement in the Subject Slot
				2) Complement in the Object Slot 
			b. Different-Subject Complements
				1) Complement in the Subject Slot
				2) Complement in the Object Slot
	E. Problem Solving with That -Clause, Infinitive, and VERBing Complements
	F. Comparisons
		1. Verb and Object Complements
			a. Similarity
				1) Full Comparison
				2) Abbreviated Comparison
			b. Difference
				1) Positive Comparison
					a) Full Comparison
					b) Abbreviated Comparison
				2) Negative Comparison
					a) Full Comparison
					b) Abbreviated Comparison
		2. Predicate Noun Phrase and Predicate Adjective Complements
			a. Similarity
				1) Full Comparison
				2) Abbreviated Comparison
			b. Difference
				1) Positive Comparison
					a) Full Comparison
					b) Abbreviated Comparison
				2) Negative Comparison
					a) Full Comparison
					b) Abbreviated Comparison
		3. Problem Solving with Comparisons					
	
Appendix
	Answer Key to Exercises
	Irregular Verbs
	Separable and Nonseparable Phrasal Verbs

Index

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[Updated 2-11-98]