Keiko Suzuki

ECON 165 Regional Economics
Dr. Watkins Spring 1999 Term Assignment

Regional Study of Tokyo Metropolitan

Shinjuku Metropolitan Buildings

Dohkan Ohta Tokyo is a city with a history of about 400 years.┼@In 1603, it was here that Ieyasu Tokugawa established the capital of the Tokugawa Shogunate, his ruling military government.┼@At that time, Tokyo was called "Edo" and it prospered as a political and cultural center.┼@By the middle of the 18th century, Edo was a great city with a population of more than one million.┼@"Edo" became known as "Tokyo" over 260 years later in 1868.┼@During the Meiji Restoration, Tokyo became the capital of Japan both in name and reality, and the imperial palace was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo.┼@Since then, Tokyo has been at the forefront of modernization in Japan.┼@In this century, Tokyo has been dealt two crushing blows:┼@once by the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, and again by air raids during the Second World War.┼@However, Tokyo has recovered through the untiring efforts of its itizens, and is now a bustling international city. 
Statue of feudal lord Dokan Ota, builder of Edo Castle.

Geography and Area

Tokyo Metropolis is located approximately in the central part of the Japanese archipelago.┼@Its area is about 2,200 km2, or about 0.6% of Japan's total land area.┼@Tokyo Metropolis is broadly divided into three areas:┼@one is the 23-ku (special wards) area which is the urban core of Tokyo;┼@another is the Tama area in the western part of the Metropolis which is comprised of suburban cities, farming regions and mountainous regions;┼@and yet another is the scattered island area in the Pacific Ocean.┼@The total area of the 23-ku is 618km2.┼@This is about 70% of New York City.

The population of Tokyo Metropolis is about 11,781,000, or about 10% of the total Japanese population.┼@The population of the 23-ku area is about 7,957,582, and this figure is about the same as those of the city of New York (7,320,000) and the city of Moscow (8,530,000).

Tokyo occupies a formidable position in the Japanese economy and contributes greatly to the economy's sustained growth and vitality.┼@In addition to a colossal market and a premier central business district, the advanced technology base and networked small enterprises generate and maintain diverse industrial activities.

Five Key Features of Tokyo's Economy and Industry
  1. Advance of Tertiary Industry
Tertiary Industry┼@3/4 gross prefectural product
  1. Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Business Establishment
770,000 8.98 million employees
Small-and Medium-Sized Enterprises
98.2% 66.0%
  1. Cross-Industry Networking
Medium-Sized Enterprises
with Advanced Technology
┼ę┼« Small and Specialized Machine
  1. High Productivity
Nominal GDP per capital
National Level
3.89 million yen
7.17 million yen
  1. Diverse Business Opportunities
Office Space in Tokyo
70 million m2
Office workers in Tokyo
3 million workers




The People Who Work in Tokyo

In 1995 the number of employed people living and working in Tokyo came to 6.31 million, approximately 10% of the national total.
The city's daytime working population is 8.77 million, of which 33% commute in from neighboring prefectures.
Tokyo is home to 12% of Japan's business establishments, and the headquarters of many large corporations are concentrated here.
The number of daytime workers has been steadily rising, reflecting the brisk Tokyo economy.

Five Key Features of the Labor Situation

  1. Long-Term Stable Employment



    Japan's employment system is generally characterized by long-term employment.┼@However, the employment situation is now
    changing due to the long-standing depression of Japanese economy, shifting attitudes towards job mobility and company loyalty.

  3. Seniority-Based Remuneration



    Raising salary and wages in accordance with the recipient's age or duration of service is one of the characteristics of Japanese employment.
    Recently, there is a tendency towards ability evaluation and an annual salary system.

  5. Company Unions



    Labor unions in Japan are usually organized by employees in each company as a company union.

  7. Flexible Use of Human Resources



    Japanese companies actively focus on training employees' skills through periodic transfers of jobs or positions.
    This system contributes to develop generalists, not specialists.

  9. Diversifying Patterns of Employment



    There is a growing tendency toward an increase in the proportion of part-time or freelance workers.┼@Main reasons are a tough business environment for companies and various job demands of young people, women and senior citizens.

Data Links

Population Pyramid of Tokyo
The Aging Society
Number of Daytime Workers in Tokyo
Working Hours