ECON 165 Regional Economics
Dr. Watkins Spring 1999 Term Assignment
Regional Study of Tokyo Metropolitan
Shinjuku Metropolitan Buildings
|Tokyo is a city with a history of about 400 years.┼@In 1603, it was here that Ieyasu Tokugawa established the capital of the Tokugawa Shogunate, his ruling military government.┼@At that time, Tokyo was called "Edo" and it prospered as a political and cultural center.┼@By the middle of the 18th century, Edo was a great city with a population of more than one million.┼@"Edo" became known as "Tokyo" over 260 years later in 1868.┼@During the Meiji Restoration, Tokyo became the capital of Japan both in name and reality, and the imperial palace was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo.┼@Since then, Tokyo has been at the forefront of modernization in Japan.┼@In this century, Tokyo has been dealt two crushing blows:┼@once by the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923, and again by air raids during the Second World War.┼@However, Tokyo has recovered through the untiring efforts of its itizens, and is now a bustling international city.|
|Statue of feudal lord Dokan Ota, builder of Edo Castle.|
Tokyo Metropolis is located approximately in the
central part of the Japanese archipelago.┼@Its area is about 2,200 km2,
or about 0.6% of Japan's total land area.┼@Tokyo Metropolis is broadly
divided into three areas:┼@one is the 23-ku (special wards) area which
is the urban core of Tokyo;┼@another is the Tama area in the western part
of the Metropolis which is comprised of suburban cities, farming regions
and mountainous regions;┼@and yet another is the scattered island area
in the Pacific Ocean.┼@The total area of the 23-ku is 618km2.┼@This
is about 70% of New York City.
|Tokyo occupies a formidable position
in the Japanese economy and contributes greatly to the economy's sustained
growth and vitality.┼@In addition to a colossal market and a premier central
business district, the advanced technology base and networked small enterprises
generate and maintain diverse industrial activities.
Five Key Features of Tokyo's Economy and Industry
The People Who Work in Tokyo
In 1995 the number of employed people living and
working in Tokyo came to 6.31 million, approximately 10% of the national
The city's daytime working population is 8.77 million, of which 33% commute in from neighboring prefectures.
Tokyo is home to 12% of Japan's business establishments, and the headquarters of many large corporations are concentrated here.
The number of daytime workers has been steadily rising, reflecting the brisk Tokyo economy.
Five Key Features of the Labor Situation
Japan's employment system is generally characterized
by long-term employment.┼@However, the employment situation is now
changing due to the long-standing depression of Japanese economy, shifting attitudes towards job mobility and company loyalty.
Raising salary and wages in accordance with the
recipient's age or duration of service is one of the characteristics of
Recently, there is a tendency towards ability evaluation and an annual salary system.
Labor unions in Japan are usually organized by
employees in each company as a company union.
Japanese companies actively focus on training
employees' skills through periodic transfers of jobs or positions.
This system contributes to develop generalists, not specialists.
There is a growing tendency toward an increase in the proportion of part-time or freelance workers.┼@Main reasons are a tough business environment for companies and various job demands of young people, women and senior citizens.
Pyramid of Tokyo
The Aging Society
Number of Daytime Workers in Tokyo