We invite you to help us maintain a complete collection by sending us your article and book references and notifying us of any references missing from our bibliography. You are welcome to share teaching or training materials and references for assessment instruments. Kindly e-mail your contributions to

Research Bibliography

Global Leadership Research Bibliography

Global Leadership Development


Aracruz Cellulose Stakeholder Simulation. Reade, C., Todd, A.M., Osland, A. & Osland, J. (2008) “Poverty and the multiple stakeholder challenge for global leaders,” Journal of Management Education, 32(6): 820-840.


Creating Future Global Leaders, (World Economic Forum) SHRM Foundation. For more information, visit the Society for Human Relationship Management web site.

Training Software

Cultural Detective: Increase Productivity Strengthen Relationships. For more information, visit the Cultural Detective web site.

Useful Teaching Resources

Intercultural Communication Institute. For a list of teaching resources visit the Intercultural Communication Institute web site.
Academy of Management: International Management Division, Course syllabi and ideas on how to teach international business/management, visit the International Management Division Teaching resources web site.

Assessment Instruments Reviews
  • Stuart, D. K. (2009) Assessment Instruments for the Global Workforce. In M. Moodian (Ed.) Contemporary Leadership and Intercultural Competence: Exploring the Cross-cultural Dynamics Within Organizations (pp. 175-190). Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage.

  • Bird, A. (2008) Assessing Global Leadership Competencies. In Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development by M. Mendenhall, J. Osland, A., Bird, G. Oddou & M. Maznevski. New York; Routledge

  • Mendenhall, M. (2006) The Elusive, yet Critical Challenge of Developing Global Leaders. European Management Journal 24(6): 422-429.

  • Paige, R.M. (2004) Instrumentation in intercultural training. In D. Landis, J.M. Bennett, and M.J. Bennett (Eds). Handbook of intercultural training Third edition (pp. 85-128). Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Instruments to Assess Global Leadership Competencies

Instruments to Assess Cultural Differences

Instruments to Assess Intercultural Adaptability
  • NEO PI-R (Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.)

  • CPI (California Psychological Inventory; Consulting Psychologists Press)

  • CCAI (Cross Cultural Adaptability Inventory; Pearson Assessment)

  • The Attitudinal and Behavioral Openness Scale (Caligiuri & Associates)

  • IDI (Intercultural Development Inventory; Hammer Consulting)

  • OAI (Overseas Assignment Inventory; Prudential Financial)

  • MPQ (Multicutural Personality Questionnaire (van der Zee & van Oudenhoven)

  • IRC (Intercultural Readiness Check; van der Zee & van Oudenhoven)

  • SAGE (Self-Assessment for Global Endeavors; Caligiuri and Associates)

  • Category Width (Detweiler, 1978; Pettigrew, 1955)

  • Cognitive Complexity (Bieri et al., 1966)

  • Social Interest Scale (Crandall, 1975)

  • Tolerance of Ambiguity Scale (Budner, 1962)

  • Attitude Toward Diversity Scale (Montei, Adams & Eggers, 1996)

  • Acceptance of Others Scale (Fey, 1955)

  • Cosmopolitanism (Hannerz , 1992, 2000)

  • Jackson Personality Inventory (Jackson, 1974)

  • Valuing Differences (Miville et al., 1999; Fuertes et al., 2000)