Faculty Publications

 

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DETERMINANTS OF ATTITUDES TOWARD POLICE OF LATINO IMMIGRANTS AND NON-IMMIGRANTS

Author(s):


Mark E. Correia

Though much attention has been given to the effect of ethnicity on perceptions of the police, few studies had focused on Latino immigrants. Using research conducted in an immigrant rich area, this study examined the possibility that determinants of attitudes toward the police differ across immigrants and non-immigrants. Using several statistical techniques, this article explores the impact of the most commonly used variables (e.g., age, gender, contact with the police) as well as those most associated with immigrants (e.g., language proficiency, religiosity, residential stability). Other variables used to assess various social processes (e.g., social cohesion, informal social control, neighboring ...

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January 10th, 2010 | Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(1): 99-107

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UNDERSTANDING MALE SEXUAL OFFENDING: A COMPARISON OF GENERAL AND SPECIALIST THEORIES

Author(s):


Danielle A. Harris, Paul Mazerolle, and Raymond A. Knight

Previous research has explored whether criminological theories can account for the apparently specialized behaviors of sexual offenders. One perspective proposes that criminals are versatile, engaging in an array of antisocial behaviors. The alternative perspective, more common in sexual offending research, is that sexual offenders (especially child molesters) engage in sexual offenses exclusively or predominantly. This study examined 374 male sexual offenders referred for civil commitment. Offenders were compared by crime classification and level of specialization and were assessed on a selection of variables that measured general criminality and sexual deviance. Specialization level was a stronger group discriminator than offender classification. Versatile offenders were significantly more likely than specialist offenders to present with generic antisocial behaviors predicted by traditional criminology. Specialist offenders reported more indicators of sexual deviance than versatile offenders. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

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October 19th, 2009 | Criminal Justice and Behavior October 2009 vol. 36 no. 10 1051-1069

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WHAT WILL STATES REALLY DO FOR US? THE HUMAN RIGHTS ENTERPRISE AND PRESSURE FROM BELOW

Author(s):


William Armaline and Davita Silfen Glasberg

International human rights standards and treaties have been plagued with disputes over the relevance and power of international law with regard to state sovereignty. These disputes commonly result in states’ failure to realize the rights and standards outlined by such human rights instruments. What if states cannot or will not provide fundamental dignities to their people? Moreover, how does global restructuring affect states’ ability to implement human rights? We explore these questions through what we call the “human rights enterprise,” which includes conflicts between rulers and the ruled over the realization of human rights practice. As such, human rights are often developed through the struggles of grassroots organizations and non-elites from below, not simply from the compassionate actions of states to respect their international agreements.

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October 1st, 2009 | Societies Without Borders, Volume 4, Number 3, 2009 , pp. 430-451(22)

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THE BORDER SPECTACLE: PATRIOTISM, VIGILANTES AND BRUTALIZATION OF THE US AMERICAN PUBLIC

Author(s):


Sang Hea Kil, Cecilia Menjívar, and Roxanne Lynne Doty

This is an examination of how border policies become intertwined with patriotic expressions that result in an atmosphere conducive to border vigilantism. We analyze how vigilantes target sources of immigrant employment, demonstrate at public buildings in attempting to put pressure on public officials, and speak and rally at educational institutions in order to disseminate their message.

Methodology – We use content analysis, broadly defined.

Findings – Brutalization theory helps understand how a militarized border policy shapes an environment in which violence becomes an acceptable and appropriate response to undocumented migration.

Value – This chapter provides insights on both recent vigilante activities along the border and also within the interior of the nation.

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March 10th, 2009 | Crime and Justice. Sociology of Crime, Law, and Deviance series (2009). Ed. William McDonald (pp. 297 - 312). Emerald Group Publishing Ltd (United Kingdom)

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SPECIALIZATION ANDVERSATILITY IN SEXUAL OFFENDERS REFERRED FOR CIVIL COMMITMENT

Author(s):


Danielle A. Harris, Stephen Smallbone, Susan Dennison and Raymond A. Knight

Offense versatility was the more likely tendency across the sample. Committed and observed offenders did not differ. Although predominantly versatile, child molesters were significantly more likely than rapists to specialize in sexual offenses, and were also more likely to specialize in child molestation. Consistent with previous research with sexual offenders, both measures of offense specialization revealed substantial difference between child molesters and rapists. As expected, rapists had more versatile criminal records. The extent to which persistent sexual offenders specialize in sexual offenses, or the extent to which they also engage in nonsexual offenses, has only recently become the subject of empirical inquiry. This study explored the extent of both tendencies (specialization and versatility) in the criminal histories of 572 adult male sexual offenders referred to civil commitment. The specialization threshold and the diversity index were used to compare offender subgroups by referral status.

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February 10th, 2009 | Journal of Criminal Justice, 2009, 37(1): 2009:37-44


A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AMONG NEPALI WOMEN IN THE U.S.

Author(s):


Yoko Baba, S. Thapa, and H. Dulal

Although there is a growing number of studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) in U.S. South Asian communities, the examination of IPV among Nepali women in the United States is still in the initial stage. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of and vulnerabilities to IPV among 45 Nepali immigrant women residing in the New York metropolitan area. The findings demonstrated that 75.6% of women had been verbally insulted by their current partners, and 62.2% had to seek permission from their partners to go to their friends’ or relatives’ houses.

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February 1st, 2009 | Violence Against Women (2009) 15 (2): 206-223.

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WATER, PLACE, AND EQUITY

Author(s):


Richard Perry with Helen Ingram, and John Whiteley

Many predict that by the end of this century water will dominate world natural resources politics as oil does today. Access to water is widely regarded as a basic human right, and was declared so by the United Nations in 1992. And yet the water crisis grows: although the total volume of water on the planet may be sufficient for our needs, much of it is misallocated, wasted, or polluted, and the poorest of the poor live in arid areas where water is scarce. The coming decade will require new perspectives on water resources and reconsideration of the principles of water governance and policy.

Water, Place, and Equity argues that fairness in the allocation of water will be a cornerstone to a more equitable ands secure future for humankind. With analyses and case studies, it demonstrates that considerations of equity are more important in formulating and evaluating water policy than the more commonly invoked notions of efficiency and markets.

The case studies through which the book explores issues of water equity range from cost and benefit disparities that result from Southern California’s storm water runoff policies to the privatization of water in Bolivia. In a final chapter, Water, Place, and Equity considers broader concerns—the impact of global climate change on water resources and better ways to incorporate equity into future water policy.

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October 10th, 2008 | M.I.T. Press

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THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL AND PARTNER CHARACTERISTICS ON THE PERPETRATION OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN YOUNG ADULT RELATIONSHIPS

Author(s):


Veronica M. Herrera, Jacquelyn D. Wiersma and H. Harrington Cleveland

This study examines individual and partner characteristics associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in young adult relationships with opposite sex partners. Using data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined 1,275 young adults’ heterosexual romantic relationships. Controlling for the effects of family and school correlates measured in adolescence, we examined the extent to which participants’ general violent behavior in young adulthood and their partners’ use of violence in their relationship influence participants’ IPV perpetration. We found that both having general violent tendencies and being a target of violence in a relationship influenced one’s likelihood of young adults perpetrating IPV. We also tested whether the overall influence of participants’ general violent behavior on IPV perpetration was moderated by their partners’ use of violence in the relationship. We found that young women’s greatest expression of violent tendencies emerged when in relationships with violent men; yet, when partnered with non-violent men, young women’s own violent tendencies did not lead to IPV. We found little evidence for the interactive effect for young men in the study. The lack of a significant interaction in the model indicated that young men’s general aggression was not conditioned on their partners’ use of physical aggression in their relationships.

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October 10th, 2008 | Journal of Youth and Adolescence Volume 37, Number 3 (2008), 284-296

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PREDICTING SUCCESSFUL COLLEGE EXPERIENCES: EVIDENCE FROM A FIRST YEAR RETENTION PROGRAM

Author(s):


James Daniel Lee with Kimberly Noble, Nicole T. Flynn and David Hilton

Research indicates that programs designed to target first year students increase their likelihood of success during that year and their chances of completing an undergraduate education (Bureau & Rromrey, 1994; Conner & Colton, 1999). Theoretically, such programs should help in part because they foster integration into campus communities and help align personal goals with institutional goals. In an effort to increase retention and achievement of first year students, the University of South Alabama implemented a program for resident first year students called ESSENCE in the fall of 1998. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of that program on student success. Specifically we are interested in assessing the effects of the program on GPAs and graduation rates. In multivariate analyses, we compare GPAs and graduation rates for resident ESSENCE students, resident non-ESSENCE students, and non-resident students controlling for other predictors of success. We find that ESSENCE improves GPAs and the likelihood of graduating in five years relative to other experiences, even when controlling for other factors.

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April 1st, 2008 | Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice. 2007, 9:39-60.

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DATING CONFLICTS: RETHINKING DATING VIOLENCE AND YOUTH CONFLICT

Author(s):


Sang Hea Kil with Madelaine Adelman

Dating couples are tied to each other’s friends who have expectations about dating, such as who constitutes an acceptable date and how to balance friendship and dating. We explore the place of friends in dating conflicts (i.e., conflicts and violence associated with heterosexual teen dating) and ask: (a) How are friends implicated in teen dating/violence not only as targets or confidants, but also as participants in conflict that stems from their friends’ relationships, and (b) in what ways do dating conflicts conserve or challenge the power of gender and sexual conformity that underlies heterosexual dating and dating violence?

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December 10th, 2007 | Violence Against Women December 2007 vol. 13 no. 12 1296-1318

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