Reproductions and Fair Use Guidelines

For materials published before 1923, or no longer under copyright

We can provide photocopies or scans of original manuscripts, first and early editions of Beethoven's music, and journal articles in our collection.

Generally, the Beethoven Center does not copy entire books but can supply photocopies of chapters or other selected pages. Photocopying or scanning of entire books will be decided on a case-by-case basis depending on condition of the original, availability on the antiquarian market, and/or availability in a digital format.

For materials published after 1923 or any materials still under copyright

The Beethoven Center can provide photocopies or scans of materials under copyright following the guidelines for fair use:

The Fair-Use Statute

(Section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use)

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified in that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use, the factors to be considered shall include:

  1. The purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  2. The nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  4. The effect of the use upon the potential market for the value of the copyrighted work.

The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors (Emphasis added).

The Beethoven Center reserves the right to refuse to accept a copying order if, in its judgment, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law. All copies become the property of the requestor.

The Beethoven Center does not copy entire books or scores.

Placing photocopy requests

Please complete the photoduplication request form and return it by fax or email. If you located the requested material through the Beethoven Gateway, please provide the shelf number or the persistent URL of the catalog record and forward these with a note detailing your request. Please include your name, address, phone number, and email address in your request. You will then receive a response giving you the exact amount of your order and an estimated date of delivery. Please allow at least one week for delivery, or more if the request is substantial. You will receive an invoice with your photocopy order, which may be paid by check or credit card. All payments by check must be in US$. For large orders, payment in advance might be requested.