Purposes for This Web Page

This web page was designed for PK-12 teaching credential candidates enrolled in the College of Education, San José State University. The working model provided here elaborates the four interrelated components that are related to the acquisition of skills and knowledge on becoming information literate teachers and education specialists. Within the visual representation of the working model on information literacy components, you will find the resources to learn more about each component in order to enhance your competency.     

A Working Model

The following diagram illustrates the four interrelated components connected to information literacy:

Working Model

The component of the habits of mind serves as the foundation. The intersection of the common area of the three components of library sciences literacy, media and technology literacy as well as cultural, social, ethnical and legal literacy is the core competency to become information literate teachers and education specialists. For detailed description of the components and resources, please refer to the following sections.

Resources for Each Component

The following section consists of detailed descriptions of each component and web sites that provide users to acquire related competency.

Habits of Mind

There are different terms describing individuals’ intelligent and productive habits of thinking whenever they face uncertainty or have no immediate solutions, such as thinking dispositions, habits of mind, or intelligent thinking behaviors. Since 2000, I have adopted Costa and his associates’ sixteen habits of mind, listed below, as the building blocks to engage participants in credential courses and field-based research projects.

In this project, the sixteen habits of mind are also used as the building blocks for teachers and education specialists to cultivate and engage their information literacy. The following habits of mind are themselves the life long learning attributes that will guide us to become effective analyzers and problem solvers in an information age. For more detailed information, please visit The sixteen habits of mind are:


  • Persisting
  • managing impulsivity
  • listening with understanding and empathy
  • thinking flexibly
  • thinking about thinking
  • striving for accuracy
  • question and posing problems
  • applying past knowledge to new situations
  • thinking and communication with clarity and precision
  • gathering data through all senses
  • creating, imagining, innovating
  • responding with wonderment and awe
  • taking responsible risks
  • finding humor
  • thinking interdependently
  • remaining open to continuous learning


Information Research Literacy

It is the ability to find, evaluate and use information both within and beyond library. Please visit the following web sites to learn more:

Media & Technology Literacy

It is the ability to have a collective understanding of the infrastructure of information and communication technology (ICT) and how it works; how to use software and hardware tools to manipulate digital data; and how to handle data sources that are not just in text, but in multiple media formats.

Technological Literacy

It is the ability to understand and communicate information, and accomplish tasks by using digital hardware and software.

Please visit the following web sites to learn more:

Media Literacy

It is the ability to understand and communicate by using information from a variety of medium or integrated media such as image, narration, music, animation, or video. Visual literacy is one of the more important components since most media rely on visual presentation. Visual literacy is the ability to understand the meanings of the components in an image and how to manipulate the components to enhance communication.

Please visit the following web sites to learn more:

Cultural, Social, Ethical & Legal Literacy

In today’s schools and classrooms, cultural and social literacy is important. Teachers and education specialists in many parts of the country and regions must teach and interact with students and families with diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Knowledge about cultural and social literacy will also guide them to be prepared how information could be perceived or decoded differently by different cultural, ethnic and language groups.

In an information age, Ethical and Legal Literacy is a set of critical literacy. It is vital that we understand and conform to the widely accepted cultural and social etiquette, ethics, and legal requirements in a digital social environment. For example, information literate teachers and education specialists must respect the ethical and legal issues when creating, disseminating and using others’ information in the areas of information integrity and intellectual property. One should also be aware of related issues such as: data security, freedom of speech and its impact on our community, etc. when communicating in a global digital environment.

Please visit the following web sites to learn more: