Purposes for This Web Page

Information shared in this page was designed to guide our PK-12 teaching credential candidates enrolled in the College of Education, San José State University to further examine specific standards for related performance indicators on becoming information literate teachers and education specialists. We adopted the work provided by the Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework (ANZIIL) ( for its currency and relevancy for our credential programs. Based on the observations and feedback obtained from a pilot study conducted in summer 2007 on campus, we have added two sections to contextualize the performance indicators with both every day and academic activities. This was done to differentiate the entry points for a wider range of users in accessing and utilizing the information literacy standards for higher education. A new section was added after working with our Level II education specialists on shaping their instructional leadership in fall, 2007. In this new section, we have provided the links to information literacy issues relevant to the K-12 school librarians and educators.


 Examples for Applying the Information Literacy Standards & Performance Indicators

For beginners, much of the writing about information literacy for higher education could be abstract. We have attempted to provide two examples, one from daily life and one from school scenario. We hope that it might assist the diverse groups of users to appreciate the scope and sequence of standards and performance indicators of information literacy for higher education. Knowledge and descriptions on how to find answers and learn things through a set of guiding questions could be transferred from daily life to work/discipline, or vice versa. In the final analysis, ability to apply knowledge and skills related to information literacy will rely on one’s use of productive thinking habits (or habits of mind) and capacity to build partnerships by collaborating with other knowledge individuals whenever addressing complex teaching-learning issues. Both information literacy and habits of mind are lifelong learning attributes.

The guiding questions provided in the school context were based on examples for standard provided in the ANZILF document. We have adopted, paraphrased and/or added the contents for these questions.

Every Day Scenario

School  Scenario 

Finding a desired restaurant for tourists can be challenging. We have attempted to use a set of guiding questions to reflect the meaning and use of the performance indicators to address:

“Is there a good restaurant near the hotel?” asked the tourist near dinner time

With an increasing demand to educate students with or without special needs in an inclusive classroom, school personnel must collaborate to identify appropriate classroom instruction or intervention to assist performance among every learner. The overall question is:

How do we support teachers to effectively differentiate classroom instruction for diverse groups of learners, informed by research-based evidence?



Standard One

The information literate person recognizes the need for information and determines the nature and extent of the information needed

Performance Indicators

Every Day Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for the Tourist:

School Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for school personnel:

1.1 defines and articulates the information need

What is my problem and what exactly do I need to know?

  1. What kind of food do I like in terms of country?
  2. What do I feel like having?
  3. Am I a vegetarian or am I on a diet?
  4. How hungry am I?
  5. Do I want fast food or a served meal?
  6. Is cost a concern
  7. Do I want to drive or choose a place within walking distance?
  1. What do we need to know and be able to do in order to successfully launch an inclusive classroom model?
  2. What are some key concepts and terminologies required for us to generate the guiding questions in this effort?
  3. What are the sources for promising inclusive models for our school?
  4. Does our school fit in to the intended contexts?
  5. What are the features to effectively include those language learners with and without special needs?
  6. How will we collaborate with others to identify the search and research topics?

1.2 understands the purpose, scope and appropriateness of a variety of information sources

Purpose and scope

  1. Are you taking an important guest or just dining by yourself?
  2. Are you doing this for leisure or work, such as are you an author of a restaurant guide, etc.?
  3.  Do I need this information just for tonight or for the coming week?


  1. Should I ask an expert in person, such as the bell captain?
  2. Should I ask someone who is likely to know from past experience, such as another hotel guest or a local?
  3. Should I go to the Internet and search for this City’s dining guide, digital yellow pages, etc.?
  4. Should I look for rating in the newspaper’s Entertainment section?
  5. Or should I just walk around in the hotel’s neighborhood and explore?

Purpose and scope

  1. How would we know our search topics might be organized and disseminated to field practitioners?
  2. How would we incorporate a variety of potential sources of information?


  1. How do we differentiate the intended purposes and audience of potential resources for today’s schools?
  2. How would we know that we have a sound search plan, a set of appropriate keywords or classification for our search topics?
  3. Are we searching through both the primary and secondary sources and recognizing the different perspectives each source might have?  
  4. What kinds of scientific evidence would be available to validate the appropriateness for my groups of students?
  5. Who have interpreted the research findings for classroom teachers?

1.3 re-evaluates the nature and extent of the information need

  1. If I ask the bell captain would he give me a honest recommendation since he is an employee of the hotel?
  2. Do I really have time to search on the Internet?
  3. Is it convenient to find an Internet terminal in the hotel?
  4. Should I just look at the yellow pages in the telephone booth?
  5. Exactly how important is this information for me? How much time do I have till dinner time or in time to make a reservation if required?
  1. Who are the available resource persons and what are services available to our school team when we need to review, clarify, revise or refine the guiding questions?
  2. How would we generate the criteria to search and evaluate diverse sources of information before making informed decision about our choices?
  3. Who are likely to build the partnership with us to differentiate classroom instruction?
  4. How would we know that we have made the informed decision?

1.4 uses diverse sources of information to inform decisions 

  1. Should I verify the recommendation from the bell captain with a local?
  2. Should I get a couple of restaurant names from the Internet and then ask for the Bell captain’s recommendation?
  3. May be the Bell captain can give me directions?
  4. Should I use the Internet?
  5. Are there restaurant guides in my room?
  6. Should I just walk around the neighborhood, look at their menus and see if there are lines outside?
  1. Have we considered more than two or more perspectives when we search for the appropriate sources for the inclusive classroom practices?
  2. Have we searched multiple sources of recommended inclusive classroom practices for our students?
  3. How will we make an informed decision about identifying the inclusive classroom practices for our school?

As a result of my questions above, I articulated my information search plan to guide me in the following information search:

I need to have a quick dinner by myself at a casual restaurant within walking distance from my downtown hotel. I am hungry and I feel like having Chinese Szechuan food.
As a result of the school team’s planning, we know that we must identify all necessary and research-based information about differentiating instruction in an inclusive classroom. We must provide adequate support for teachers as well as for those who are unable to engage in the whole class instruction and discussions.

The following links will assist users to enhance library search: (Use guest entry)
Tutorials on information literacy when using a library (
Tutorials on effective research skills  (

Standard Two

The information literate person finds needed information effectively and efficiently

Performance Indicators
Every Day Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for the Tourist:
School Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for school personnel:

2.1 selects the most appropriate methods or tools for finding information

Since there is free Internet access at the Coffee Shop in the lobby, I am going to find a couple of names from the restaurant guide on the Internet, get the direction or a location map, visit the places, and look at their menus before I make a decision. 

  1. How are we selecting and utilizing among various investigative methods in seeking information?
  2. Have we tuned up the search engine before lunching the search?
  3. Who might be guiding us to investigate the benefits and applicability of different search methods?
  4. How would we collaborate with school or education librarians to help us to investigate the scope, content, and organization of potential information access tools?

2.2 constructs and implements effective search strategies

When using the Internet I would:

  1. see if I have a time limit
  2. find an Internet browser and a search engine that I am familiar and enter the key words from my articulated question: your location, Chinese Szechuan food, casual, dinner, direction, etc.
  3. Or visit online local newspaper’s Entertainment section and look for their recommendations.
  4. If the Internet access is down or has a long line, then I will ask the local people in the restaurant for suggestions or look for printed restaurant guides in the Coffee Shop’ magazine rack.
  1. How would we develop a search plan appropriate to using our selected search method?
  2. What might be some keywords, synonyms and related terms for the information we needed?
  3. Who might help us to select appropriate controlled vocabulary or a classification specific to the topics on inclusive classroom and differentiated instruction and to the selected search tool?
  4. How would we construct and implement a search strategy with proper commend in our search process?

2.3 obtains information using appropriate methods

  1. If there is a line at the Coffee Shop for using the Internet, I will focus on my search and get off quickly after my use.
  2. If I see information in a printed matter I will copy down the information and NOT tear the page out.
  3. If I need to talk to one of the local people, I will be clear with my intention and be polite in the process.
  1. How would we use various information access tools to retrieve information in a variety of formats?
  2. Have we used the appropriate services to retrieve information needed, such as document delivery, professional associations, institutional research offices, community resources expert and field practitioners?
  3. Will we need to use surveys, letters, interviews and other forms of inquiry to retrieve primary information for our search project?

2.4 keeps up to date with information sources, information technologies, information
access tools and investigative methods

  1. Since I feel competent with the computer I would choose this source over a printed form of information because
  2. A digital format helps me find and filter information quickly with search functions.
  3. Internet contents usually are more updated.
  4. For my friend Joan, since she does not use the computer often, she would prefer to talk to the local people because she has very good people skills.
  1. How would we keep up with the changes in information and communications technology?
  2. How would we set up the alert or current awareness services to be updated with the information we are searching?
  3. Shall we sign up to or organize a district-based listservs and discussion groups related to inclusive classroom and differentiated classroom instruction?
  4. How would we set up a plan that will guide us to monitor updates through print and electronic sources about our selected topics?

The following links will assist users to search for specific laws:

Steps for Finding the California Law- Special Education
(Provided by Ms. Sue Kendall, Education Librarian, SJSU)

San Jose State University’s Tools To Get Started:

Standard Three

The information literate person critically evaluates information and the information seeking process

Performance Indicators
Every Day Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for the Tourist:
School Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for school personnel:

3.1 assesses the usefulness and relevance of the information obtained


I got 50 results from my initial search. I need to narrow down my search to 10 (people are waiting in line) by:

  1. Making sure they contain ALL the key words that I entered; the right kind of Szechan food; location is correct; price is right, etc.
  2. Examine what is the information nature: if they are advertisements, recommendations by restaurant critics or rating from customers, etc.
  1. How would we assess the quantity, quality, and relevance of the search results to make decision for the “next step” in our search effort?
  2. How would we know that we need to revise our search strategy?
  3. Will we need to adjust our project timeline whenever we need to repeat the search?

3.2 defines and applies criteria for evaluating information

Within 10 finalists, I would apply the following criteria:

  1. who has a map feature that tells me where they are from my hotel
  2. who has a sample menu
  3. who has advertisement as well as customers’ rating
  4. who has a lot of photos of their dishes
  5. if the local newspaper or local  people also recommend it.
  1. What are our strategy and criteria to examine and compare information from various sources to evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, and point of view or bias from the pool of information about inclusive classroom and differentiated instruction?
  2. How would we analyze the structure and logic of supporting arguments or methods from information we retrieved?
  3. What are the appropriate methods for us to recognize and question prejudice, deception or manipulation from the information we have retrieved?
  4. How would we adequately recognize the cultural, physical, or other context within which the information was created and explain the impact of context on interpreting the information in order to identify the most suitable inclusive classroom and differentiated instruction model for our school?
  5. What might be some criteria or guidelines that will help us to recognize any of our own biases and the cultural contexts?

3.3 reflects on the information seeking process and revises search strategies as necessary

I learned in the process that:

  1. I was able to narrow down to five choices from the Internet after adding more key words such as menus, direction as well as changing search to newspapers, restaurant guide magazines, etc.
  2. My friend talked to local people in the Coffee Shop and narrowed down to three in terms of their exact locations and past experiences.
  3. We made a couple of calls to the restaurants to make sure they still have room.
  4. We actually walked over to the three restaurants that are close by and looked at their menus.
  1. How would we set up evaluation criteria in order to know whether or not that we might need additional information?
  2. How often do we need to review our search strategy?
  3. What are some criteria most useful to review the information access tools?
  4. How would we keep everyone informed that the information search process is rarely linear?
  5. What might be some productive habits of mind that our team must demonstrate in order to engage in an evolutionary process to retrieve and evaluate information regularly?

The following link will assist the users to apply the Big 6 skills while conducting internet research:

Standard Four

The information literate person manages information collected or generated

Performance Indicators
Every Day Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for the Tourist:
School Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for school personnel:

4.1 records information and its sources

Using the small writing pad from the hotel room, I copied down the following information from my search:

  1. web site’s URL
  2. name of restaurant
  3. exact location
  4. contact information
I also drew a direction map with the help from the local people.
  1. How would we organize the contents of our search in a way that will support the purposes and format of the final products on recommended inclusive classroom and differentiated instruction approaches or models for our school?
  2. How would we differentiate different types of information sources in our final report?
  3. What are the resources that will guide us to cite different sources of citations through the APA style, 5th edition in order to be communicate with a wide range of users and readers in the field of education?
  4. Who will be responsible to record and check for accuracy about all related citation information for future reference, reporting and retrieval?

4.2 organizes (orders/classifies/stores) information

- I copied the information for the three restaurants in three separate sheets.
- I underlined the names.
- I drew a smiling face next to my preference.

  1. Who will be responsible to compile and verify references in the selected bibliographic format?
  2. How would we create a system to organize and manage the information retrieved on our selected topics?

The following links will assist users to search for the APA Style:

American Psychology Association’s APA Online:

San Jose State University’s Websites on How to Cite Sources:

Guide for Writing Research Papers based on Styles Recommended by The American Psychological Association

Standard Five

The information literate person applies prior and new information to construct new concepts or create new understandings

Performance Indicators
Every Day Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for the Tourist:
School Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for school personnel:

5.1 compares and integrates new understandings with prior knowledge to determine the
value added, contradictions, or other unique characteristics of the information

We learned that:

  1. The Internet access at the Coffee Shop was slow.
  2. People were friendly overall.
  3. We learned from our past experience that when there are many Asian customers in a Chinese restaurant, usually it is an indicator for authentic Chinese food.
  4. We also understand that if there is a line outside of the restaurant, it is likely that it is a local’s favorite.
  5. Looking at the three finalists, we learned that the ones that advertised heavily on the Internet did not have a line outside and few Asian customers.
  6. The restaurant that we chose and enjoyed our meal had the highest rating by their online customers.
  1. How would we guide us to determine whether information retrieved do satisfy our search purposes, or whether the information contradicts or verifies information used from other sources?
  2. How will we recognize the interrelationship between concepts and draws conclusions based upon information gathered by the school team?
  3. Who will be responsible to select information that provides evidence for our targeted topics and summarize the main ideas gleaned from the information retrieved by the school team?
  4. How would we prepare our colleagues that information retrieved and recommended is subject to change as a result of ongoing dialogue, field testing and change of student demographics?

5.2 communicates knowledge and new understandings effectively

  1. We went online and added our comments on this restaurant.
  2. We took some photos in the restaurant and posted them in our blog/web site together with our comments and web sites that referred us there.
  3. We told our friends in our e-mail messages and gave them the web site to our blog/web site.
  1. What are our criteria to select a communication or presentation medium and format that would be appropriate to highlight the recommended approaches and models for the inclusive classroom and differentiated instruction to our colleagues?
  2. Who will be responsible to use the information technology and create the presentation of the team products?
  3. What might be some useful principles of design and communication appropriate for our school users?
  4. How would we know that our presentation of the final product is effective with our colleagues?

The following link will assist the users to gain more related skills:


Standard Six

The information literate person uses information with understanding and acknowledges cultural, ethical, economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information

Performance Indicators
Every Day Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for the Tourist:
School Scenario ~ Problem Solving Approaches for school personnel:

6.1 acknowledges cultural, ethical, and socioeconomic issues related to access to, and use
of, information

  1. We understood that we should be ethical when making our recommendation on the restaurant to others in terms of acknowledging our information source properly.
  1. How well are we informed about issues related to privacy and security in the print and electronic environment?
  2. How would we inform the team and our colleagues about issues related to censorship and freedom speech?
  3. How would we monitor that we would show respect to Indigenous and multicultural perspectives of using information?

6.2 recognizes that information is underpinned by values and beliefs

  1. We noted that the Bell Captain’s recommendation was vague probably because of his role at the hotel.  Some of the web pages on restaurants were self advertisements by nature therefore we took the information with a grain of salt.
  1. How would we identify whether there are differing values that underpin new information or whether information has implications for personal values and beliefs?
  2. How would we apply the sets of habits of mind to determine whether to incorporate or reject viewpoints encountered in our search, review, and synthesizing process?
  3. How would we strive for coherence in our collective values informed by our co-constructed knowledge and experiences in this search process?

6.3 conforms with conventions and etiquette related to access to, and use of, information

  1. When we waited in line for the computers at the Coffee Shop, we did not look at others’ computer screens and what they entered on their keyboard.
  2. We left our comments in the “customer feedback” column of our chosen restaurant’s web site and rated them honestly.
  1. How would we model for others about a collective understanding of plagiarism and always acknowledge the work and ideas of others?

6.4 legally obtains, stores, and disseminates text, data, images, or sounds

  1. We found our information through web pages, guide book, and people that provided access and permission to quote them. 
  2. We asked the restaurant’s owner first before we tool a photo of the interior for our blog/web site. 
  1. How would we construct a checklist that will guide us to explain and follow the fair dealing with respect to the retrieving and disseminating educational and research materials obtained from our school team?
  2. How would we respect the access rights of all school colleagues and preserve the useful condition of the final products?
  3. How would we obtain, store, and disseminate text, data, images, or sounds in a legal manner throughout our search process?
  4. How would we explain to our colleagues about intellectual property, copyright and fair use of copyrighted material?

The following links will assist users to search the related issues:

San Jose State University’s Online Tutorial on Plagiarism

Copyright and Fair Use

Office of Intellectual Freedom from American Library Association

Tutorial for students to understand why plagiarism is wrong and how to adopt referencing skills

More about plagiarism for teachers

Very informative article on Anti Plagiarism by Robert Harris