**(S1.1) ** For each of the studies below, identify the measurement scales of the dependent variable
(continuous, ordinal, or categorical) and the type of sample used to collect data (single, paired,
independent with discrete groups, or having a scale independent variable).

(A) An investigator wishes to determine whether high density lipoprotein levels (mg/dl) differ in men and women.

(B) An investigator treats one eye of bilateral glaucoma with a new drug intended to lower intra-ocular
pressure (mm Hg) and the other eye with a placebo, and compares the difference.

(C) An investigator studies the functional relationship between gestational age (weeks) and birth weight
(grams) in 100 unrelated babies.

(D) An investigator studies the relationship between cardiac output (liters/minute) and body weight (kilograms).

(E) An investigator hypothesizes that head trauma during childhood (yes/no) is associated with the
development of seizures (yes/no).

(F) An investigator treats 50 men with hair loss pattern with either treatment I, treatment II, or treatment III
and then studies the number of new follicles per centimeter of scalp.

(G) An investigator determines whether systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) is related to body weight
(kilograms).

**(S1.2) **As you did in Exercise S1.1, identify the measurement scale of the dependent variable (continuous,
ordinal, or categorical) and the type of sample used to collect data (single sample, paired samples, independent
samples with discrete groups, or independent samples with a continuous independent variable) for each of the
following scenarios.

(A) An investigator treats 100 women with breast cancer with an experimental treatment and uses the standard
treatment in 100 others. Subjects are followed for 5 years to determine whether or not they survive.

(B) An investigator looks at the relationship between analgesic abuse (yes/no) and kidney disease by studying
creatinine levels (mg/dl).

(C) An investigator treats 100 women with breast cancer with an experimental treatment and uses the standard
treatment in 100 others. Subjects are followed to determine their median survival time (in months).

(D) You what to know whether establishing a social network in a Needle Exchange Program increase the risk
of contracting HIV.

(E) An investigator wants to learn if enrollment in an enforced exercise program lowers blood pressure.

(F) An economist wants to know whether people who visit farmer's markets have a greater level of education
than those who do no. (Education will be measured as: 1 = did not complete high school 2 = completed high
school 3 = completed 2 years of college 4 = completed college 5 = completed Graduate school.

**(S1.3) **Parameters are quantifiable population characteristics.
Parameters are rarely known. Thus, we estimate them with statistical estimators
calculated in samples.
Examples of statistical estimators and their associated parameters are:

- as an estimate of µ
*m*(the sample median) as an estimate of*M**s*as an estimate of s- as an
estimate of
*p* as an estimate of µ_{d}_{d}_{}_{1}-_{2}as an estimate of µ_{1}- µ_{2}_{1}-_{2}estimates the relative difference*p*_{1}-*p*_{2}- and so on.

For each scenario listed below, identify the *estimator *and *parameter *that
apply.

(A) In a nationwide survey of 4000 likely voters, 70% said that elected officials do not care what people think
about the issues.

(B) The median yearly income for households in California is $500 higher than for those in Utah.

(C) A sample of 2000 fatal motor vehicle accidents in teenagers found that 65% of the drivers had detectable
levels of alcohol in their blood.

**(S1.4) **For each scenario below, identify the estimators and parameters that apply.

(A) The average weight loss on a diet program was 6.6 pounds.

(B) The difference between the percentage of seniors and juniors that own cars on campus is 11%.

(C) Smokers are 14 times more likely to develop lung cancer than non-smokers.

Key to Odd Numbered Problems

Key to Even Numbered Problems (may not be posted)