The Old Days

In this excerpt from a longer conversation, Ibrahim, an artisan in his 90s, and Bibi Shirini, a farmer and housewife in her 60s, talk about life in the old days. The conversation was recorded on July 24, 2018 in Hunza Valley.

The orthography used in these transcriptions was created expressly for this project. The symbols and their IPA counterparts are as follows: p [p], ph [pʰ], b [b], t [t̪], th [t̪ʰ], d [d̪], ṭ [ʈ], ṭh [ʈʰ], ḍ [ɖ], k [k], kh [kʰ], g [g], m [m], n [n], ṇ [ɳ], ng [ŋ], r [ɾ], ṛ [ɽ], s [s], z [z], š [ʃ], ž [ʒ], ṣ [ʂ], ẓ [ʐ ], ṣ̌ [ᶘ], x [x], ĝ [ɣ], h [h], c [ts], č [tʃ], čh [tʃʰ], dž [dʒ], č̣ [ʈᶘ], č̣h [ʈᶘʰ], ḍẓ̌ [ɖƺ], l [l], ḷ [ɭ], y [j], w [w], i [i, ɪ], e [e, ɛ], u [u, ʊ], o [o, ɔ], a [a], ə [ə]. Nasal vowels are marked with a tilde. 

Abbreviations: 1, 2, 3 person, ABS absolute participle, CAUS causative, COND conditional, COP copula, DAT dative, DEM demonstrative, ERG ergative, F feminine, GEN genitive, GIPFV general imperfective, GPFV general perfective, IMP imperative, INF infinitive, INS instrumental, IPFV imperfective, M masculine, NEG negative, OBL oblique, OPT optative, PASS passive, PFV perfective, PL plural, PRS present, PST past, Q question particle, SG singular.