In this excerpt from a longer conversation, Darweesh Ali, a policeman in his 30s, asks Mola Madad, a teacher in his 70s, to describe his early education and classmates. The conversation was recorded on July 8, 2018 in Hunza Valley.
The orthography used in these transcriptions was created expressly for this project. The symbols and their IPA counterparts are as follows: p [p], ph [pʰ], b [b], t [t̪], th [t̪ʰ], d [d̪], ṭ [ʈ], ṭh [ʈʰ], ḍ [ɖ], k [k], kh [kʰ], g [g], m [m], n [n], ṇ [ɳ], ng [ŋ], r [ɾ], ṛ [ɽ], s [s], z [z], š [ʃ], ž [ʒ], ṣ [ʂ], ẓ [ʐ ], ṣ̌ [ᶘ], x [x], ĝ [ɣ], h [h], c [ts], č [tʃ], čh [tʃʰ], dž [dʒ], č̣ [ʈᶘ], č̣h [ʈᶘʰ], ḍẓ̌ [ɖƺ], l [l], ḷ [ɭ], y [j], w [w], i [i, ɪ], e [e, ɛ], u [u, ʊ], o [o, ɔ], a [a], ə [ə]. Nasal vowels are marked with a tilde.
Abbreviations: 1, 2, 3 person, ABS absolute participle, CAUS causative, COND conditional, COP copula, DAT dative, DEM demonstrative, ERG ergative, F feminine, GEN genitive, GIPFV general imperfective, GPFV general perfective, IMP imperative, INF infinitive, INS instrumental, IPFV imperfective, M masculine, NEG negative, OBL oblique, OPT optative, PASS passive, PFV perfective, PL plural, PRS present, PST past, Q question particle, SG singular.